Colon cancer

Colon cancer

INTRODUCTION

We all know cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases which is spreading at a faster rate all across the world due to many factors like tobacco use, alcohol use, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. Global cancer rates are highest in some countries in comparison to other countries are Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Hungary, etc. There are different types of cancer. Among them, Colon Cancer is one of the cancer spreading across the globe. Colon cancer’s highest rate is in the country Hungary followed by another country South Korea. In the below-mentioned context, I am going to discuss “Colon Cancer”.

ABOUT THE TOPIC

Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine i.e. colon, which is the final part of the digestive tract. Colon cancer can happen at any age in the entire life period but it typically affects older adults. It can also be called colorectal cancer or rectal cancer depending upon where they start. There are different stages in cancer and colon cancer also has stages and its stages are five namely stage 0, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4. 

Beginning of colon cancer

Most colon or colorectal cancer begins as a growth on the inner lining of the colon or rectum. These growths are named as polyps. Some polyps can change into cancer over time, usually, it takes many years but all polyps will not become cancer. The chances for turning a polyp into cancer depends upon which type of polyp it is, there are different types of polyps which are mentioned below:-

  • Adenomatous polyps:- These polyps sometimes turn into cancer due to which adenomas are also called as a pre-cancerous condition. Adenomas are of three types such as tubular, villous, and tubulovillous. 
  • Hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps:- These polyps are more common but they are not generally pre-cancerous. Some people with high hyperplastic polyps might often need to undergo colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy.
  • Sessile serrated polyps and traditional serrated adenomas:- These polyps are often treated like adenomas because they have a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

How colon cancer spreads?

If cancer forms in a polyp, it can grow into the wall of the rectum or colon over time. The wall of the colon or rectum is made up of several layers. Colon cancer initially grows in the innermost layer (which is called mucosa) and can grow outward through all the other layers. When the cancer cells are in the wall, they can grow into the blood vessels or lymph vessels. From there, they can travel to nearby lymph nodes and also to other distant parts of the body.

CONCLUSION  

From the above, we can conclude that colon cancer is dangerous as other types of cancer and many people are dying because of this as usual. So, we all need to follow preventive measures to prevent the risk of developing colon cancer in our body. Preventive measures are as follows:-

  • The most effective preventive measure for colorectal or colon cancer is too early detection of pre-cancerous colorectal polyps and removal of them before they turn into cancerous.
  • Regular physical activity can lower the risk of developing colon cancer.
  • The combined use of estrogen and progestin in hormone replacement therapy also helps in lowering the risk of colon cancer in postmenopausal women.

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