Is Only Heavy Monsoon Rains A Reason For Floods In India?
In India for every year there are floods. It is defined as an overflow of a large amount of water beyond its normal limits, especially over what is normally dry land; mostly due to heavy rainfall. But in India is the only reason for rainfall, heavy rain? No!
Reasons Behind Floods In India:
Due to this, many people go to cities to seek their bread and butter. They don’ get enough space for houses then it forms a crowded area. People have to live in slum areas which are mostly near rivers and gutters. There is the unavailability of space to flow water. And usually, all large cities are on the bank of some rivers. When there is a rainfall water level in rivers and gutters increases, and then water directly rushes into houses. There should be proper planning by the government for housing, roads, and resources for people. There is also a need to protect the poor and marginalized.
Lack of proper Drainage system:
Lack of proper maintenance, blockages due to plastic bags or small plants, and ignorance by the government make drainage a cause for urban flooding. There should be regular repairing of drainage pipes. So that water of flood will flow easily through it and drain water will not overflow at the time of floods.
Encroachment in flood plains:
Building houses, as well as industries in the flood plains of a river, results in a lack of space for extra water due to heavy rains that demolish human lives. Encroachment upon drain and flood plain should attract penal action.
In India, embankments are near to river banks which is one of the main causes of flooding, that narrows river flow, and water speed is increased. In Rainy season water come outs over embankments and some embankments have not built properly that result in leakage of water the breakage of embankments. Officers should give proper attention while building embankments and if there is any crack then it must be repaired before the rainy season.
This is one of the reasons for climate change. With it, deforestation in the catchment area of a river reduces the land’s ability to retain water. The government should run tree plantation drive on river banks and in the hilly area especially. https://amp.scroll.in/article/936999/rampant-deforestation-in-the-western-ghats-is-causing-recurring-floods-in-southern-india
Concrete covers to soil:
In rural areas, there is adequate space for water percolation. But in cities, the soil is covered with cement and other materials so that there is no enough water percolation and flood happens. For it, the sponge cities method getting implemented in China will be helpful for Indian urban areas. Every building should have rainwater harvesting. Have a watch on this video https://youtu.be/6ypr6E23nuU
Leakage from dams:
There are many dams that are very old to store water and some are new but still having cracks. During rains, the gaps get widen and water overflows, and flood forms. To overcome this problem the irrigation department should repair dams before the rainy season.
Ending capacity of dams and rivers:
If the dams are already fully filled with water after the rain there is no capacity for water then water comes out creating vast floods. There should be at least 30% storage capacity of dams to be kept before the rainy season. And the river capacity should be increased.
In 2010 National Disaster Management Authorities Of India had issued guidelines to overcome floods There is still a need to follow it. some of them are:
- A timely flood hazard assessment should be done.
- Creating a National hydrometeorological network.
- Planning and designing the stormwater drainage system.
- Climate-resilient planning.
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